Visitors were given food, clothing, and a place to sleep. Very important to this culture was wampum. Wampum belts and necklaces were made from wampum beads. These beads were actually white and purple shells. Wampum was used as money between white man and Indians.
Wampum belts were used as a form of communication between Indian tribes. Wampum belts would be made into pictures showing the reason it was made. All Indian messengers carried wampum belts when going to other tribes. The Cherokee lived mainly in what is now Tennessee and Georgia. Like the Iroquois, the Cherokee depended on their natural resources for survival. They lived in about fairly large villages. A normal Cherokee town had about 30 - 60 houses and a large meeting building. Cherokee homes were usually wattle and daub. Wattle is twigs, branches, and stalks woven together to make a frame for a building.
Daub is a sticky substance like mud or clay. The Cherokee covered the wattle frame with daub. This created the look of an upside down basket. Later, log cabins with bark roofs were used for homes. The Cheokee villages also had fences around them to prevent enemies from entering. Like the Iroquois, the Cherokee also hunted small game such as deer, rabbit, and bear.
Since their villages were usually near streams or lakes, they also fished using spears and nets. Berries, nuts, and wild plants were important forms of food for the Cherokee. The Cherokee were considered to be excellent farmers. They had large farms which grew corns, beans, and squash. The Cherokee women wore skirts woven from plants. The men wore breechcloths or leggings.
The Iroquois Tribes [ipafylekixiv.tk]
The men would paint their skin and decorate it with tattoos. The women would sew feathers into light capes made of netting. The Cherokee were considered one of the most "civilized" Indian tribes of North America. They had their own government, laws, courts, and schools.
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It had 86 characters. Within a few years all of the Cherokees could read and write it. Between and the white man began to push westward into the Cherokee territory.
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The Cherokee fought hard to keep their land. They even took their fight against being removed from their land to court. At first it seemed like they might win. But they were forced to leave the land they loved. IN ONE of the saddest stories in our history, thousands of men, women, and children were forced off of the land they loved and moved into crowded forts with very little food.
They were then forced to walk over a thousand miles to what is now Arkansas. It was an unusually cold winter. Many of the Indians were barefoot with little clothing. They were forced to walk through snow and ice. They ate only what they could find along the way. Many Indians died along the way, especially older Indians and children. Originally, at the formation of the Confederacy, there were only five nations. They started with the Mohawks at the eastern door.
Then we move over to the Oneidas, to the Onondagas, who are the central fire keepers. Going further west, we hit the Cayugas and then finally the Senecas.
The Tuscaroras didn't join the Confederacy until The Confederacy is also known by the name Haudenosaunee. This means people of the longhouse. Haudenosaunee or Iroquois people have lived in the eastern woodlands in the Northeast probably for at least 1, years. It's thought that we migrated perhaps from the south, from Appalachia, or even from the west, from the Ohio Valley. The Iroquois Confederacy was clearly one of the most powerful political and economic entities in eastern North America for several hundred years.
Clearly from to , the Confederacy was enormously powerful. It controlled a great deal of land and was one of the prime players in the political scene for several hundred years. But probably-- what I'd like to talk with you about now are three characteristics of the Confederacy that are particularly important.
The first is that we're known for having developed the first participatory and representative form of government on North America. The second thing is that we are a matriarchy, that women are very, very important, respected, and very powerful, both in contemporary times and in historical times.
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And then finally, that Iroquois agriculture has played a very, very large role in the political, the social, and cultural history. In fact, many people believe that it was the very productive and dynamic agricultural system that provided the foundation for the powerful Confederacy when it first formed. I'd like to go into a little detail on each one of those aspects now. The Iroquois Confederacy was actually first started in probably the s.
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It comes to us in the form of the Great Law. Iroquois people have had the Great Law. It's an oral text that has been recited in Iroquois communities at both formal and ceremonial events for probably close to or years. It details the governance of the Confederacy. It tells us how we are to rule and govern ourselves.
It came in a time when Iroquois communities were in great disruption. There was widespread warfare, all sorts of awful things taking place. And people were searching for a way that the different communities might live together in peace. The Confederacy was established using the Great Law as its template, telling us how we could appoint chiefs and how we might govern ourselves in ways that allowed people to have representation.
Today, we're sitting in the community room of Akwe:kon, which is in the program house, the American Indian Program House at Cornell University. Akwe:kon, the building itself, was opened in And it embodies, both in its structure and in its architectural details, many of the icons, the things that represent Iroquois philosophy, governance, and world view. For example, one of the important wampum belts, of which there are six in the building, is the Hiawatha wampum belt.
And you can see that directly behind me in the windows of the community room on the east wall. By the early 17th century, trapping had severely depleted the beaver population around the Great Lakes. The Iroquois Confederacy occupied some of the more depleted beaver habitat and began a military campaign intended to effect expansion into territory that had not been overhunted. While raiding for expansionist purposes might have differed from raiding intended to take captives, those tribes that were put on the defensive created several alliances to repel confederacy attacks.
A prominent example was an alliance known as the Wendat Confederacy , which comprised several Huron bands and the Tionontati. The Wenrohronon and the Neutral tribes also formed loose defensive coalitions.
Ultimately, however, these alliances proved ineffective. The Iroquois Confederacy conquered the Wendat in —50, the Neutrals in , the Erie in , and the Susquehannock in Northeast Indian. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Traditional culture patterns Territorial and political organization Subsistence, settlement patterns, and housing Production and technology Social organization Kinship and family life Religion Cultural continuity and change.
See Article History. Traditional culture patterns Territorial and political organization Of the three language families represented in the Northeast, Algonquian groups were the most widely distributed. Start Your Free Trial Today. Load Next Page.