Get e-book Economic Issues and Political Conflict: US–Latin American Relations

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Economic Issues and Political Conflict: US–Latin American Relations file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Economic Issues and Political Conflict: US–Latin American Relations book. Happy reading Economic Issues and Political Conflict: US–Latin American Relations Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Economic Issues and Political Conflict: US–Latin American Relations at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Economic Issues and Political Conflict: US–Latin American Relations Pocket Guide.

April 14, — August 13, R The following table lists the names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns related to border security. Policy areas identified include the following: Mission: scope, magnitude, relationship to departmental mission, functions and their interrelationships. Border surveillance: airports and air space; detection of nuclear and radiological materials; land borders; seaports and waterways. Transnational issues: border violence; foreign cooperation with Apprehension trends for these three countries are similar and diverge sharply from those for Mexican children.

Unaccompanied child January 7, — July 2, R Trafficking in Persons: U. Policy and Issues for Congress. January 10, — May 1, RL Trafficking in persons TIP for the purposes of exploitation is believed to be one of the most prolific areas of contemporary international criminal activity and is of significant interest to the United States and the international community as a serious human rights concern. TIP is both an international and a domestic crime that involves violations of labor, public health, and human rights standards, and criminal law.

In general, the trafficking business feeds on conditions of vulnerability, such as youth, gender, poverty, ignorance, social exclusion, political instability, and ongoing Congressional interest in the laws and processes involved in conditioning U. Administrations have increased emphasis on expanding U. Congress has played an especially prominent role in initiating, amending, supporting with resources, and overseeing implementation of long-standing laws on human rights provisions affecting U.

September 14, — June 28, R January 28, — January 15, R Few observers expect the government to ease its tight control over the political system Latin America and the Caribbean: U. Policy and Key Issues for Congress in February 14, — December 21, R There has been substantial continuity in U. History and geography have given Mexico a unique status in the U. Mexicans are the largest group of U. This report reviews the history of immigration policy and migration flows between the countries and the demographics of Mexicans within the United States.

It also analyzes contemporary issues in U. Counterdrug Programs. April 30, — March 19, R Drug trafficking is viewed as a primary threat to citizen security and U. The production and trafficking of popular illicit drugs—cocaine, marijuana, opiates, and methamphetamine—generate a multi-billion dollar black market in which Latin American criminal and terrorist organizations thrive. These groups challenge state authority in source and transit countries where governments are often fragile and easily corrupted. According to the Department of Justice, November 8, — March 6, R October 14, — July 11, R In addition, P.

January 15, — May 6, R The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti devastated parts of the country, including the capital, on January 12, The quake, centered about 15 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince, had a magnitude of 7. A series of strong aftershocks have followed. Approximately 3 million people, roughly one-third of the overall population, have been affected by the earthquake with estimates ranging from 1.

The government of Haiti is reporting an estimated , deaths and , injured. In the Chile Earthquake: U. On February 27, , an earthquake of magnitude 8. Over aftershocks of magnitude 5. September 4, — March 10, R Paraguay: Political and Economic Conditions and U. Paraguay, a landlocked nation in the center of South America, has friendly relations with the United States and has been a traditional ally. The population of 6. However, in , a severe drought and the impact of the global economic This report includes a table which provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to swine influenza A virus H1N1.

Policy areas identified include: Identification, diagnosis, and surveillance of the virus; Treatment and prevention: antiviral drugs Tamiflu, Relenza and vaccines; Declarations of emergencies; Official plans and organizational responsibilities; and Restrictions on travel and trade. On September 30, , President George W. Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues for the th Congress.

January 23, — January 26, RL Over the past two decades, the Latin America and Caribbean region has made enormous strides in terms of political and economic development, with regular free and fair elections the norm in most countries. Although the region overall experienced an economic setback in , it rebounded from , with strong economic growth. In , however, the advent of the global financial crisis and U. Growth began to slow as commodity prices and the demand for exports and services from the region declined. Several nations also Part One discusses U.

It also examines other forms of soft power September 20, — May 7, RL The demise of the long-ruling Stroessner military dictatorship in initiated a political transition in Paraguay that has been difficult at times. Current President Nicanor Duarte Frutos has implemented some reforms that have addressed corruption and contributed to economic growth. May 11, — March 18, RL August 1, — June 20, RL August 23, — June 4, RL January 9, — January 11, RS January 13, — December 21, RL Over the past two decades, the Latin America and Caribbean region has made enormous strides in terms of political and economic development.

In , elections for head of government were held in 12 countries in the region, including the close election in Mexico in July, the re-election of presidents in Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, and Venezuela, and the election of former heads of government in Costa Rica, Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru, and St. Although the region overall experienced an economic setback in , it has rebounded since Nevertheless, several nations faced The th Congress will face a number of pressing foreign affairs, defense, and trade issues in the opening days of its tenure.

This report identifies major issues most likely to be on the legislative agenda, discusses critical policy choices at stake, and summarizes some of the major alternatives that Congress may consider. The report lists Congressional Research Service reports that address these issues, and it identifies key analysts and their areas of responsibility. A major issue confronting the new Congress is what to do in Iraq. Honduras: Political and Economic Situation and U.

Recommended For You

January 19, — October 13, RS This report discusses the relationship of United States with Honduras, characterized by significant foreign assistance, an important trade partnership, a U. June 28, — January 20, RL At the beginning of the th Congress, both the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations reorganized their subcommittee structure, affecting the coverage of the FY appropriations bills. As a result, the appropriations subcommittees that previously oversaw the Departments of Transportation and the Treasury, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies now also oversee the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, and in the case of the House, but not the Senate the District of Columbia.

Organization of American States: A Primer. March 28, — December 20, RS The OAS works to promote democracy, protect human rights, preserve security, expand trade, and address cross-cutting issues of hemispheric concern. November 12, — October 24, RL All of the signatory countries except Costa Rica have approved the pact. The agreement will enter into force for the approving countries on an agreed date, tentatively January 1, September 22, — September 20, RL This report summarizes the congressionally-mandated presidential designation procedures on major illicit narcotics producing and transit countries in Section of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for FY H.

To put the new procedures in perspective, the report also provides information on the past procedures, the congressional modifications, and recent presidential designations under the revised procedures. This report will not be updated. From the mids to , Congress required the President to certify in early March This report first examines various transition scenarios for Cuba after Fidel Castro.

It then examines implications of the transition for U. The th Congress will likely address a number of pressing foreign affairs, defense and trade issues. This report identifies the issues most likely to be taken up in the first session, and provides information and analysis to support Congress in shaping U. The report also provides lists of selected CRS products that provide more detailed analysis.

Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, , Congress has increasingly been confronted with issues relating to the war on terrorism and homeland security. Congress will likely be particularly interested in However, the bill also includes an across-the-board rescission of 0. July 21, — April 1, RL Congress is required by law to authorize the spending of appropriations for the State Department and foreign policy activities every two years.

Foreign assistance authorization measures such as authorization for the U. Agency for International Development, economic and military assistance to On September 9, , the House passed H. July 25, — January 31, RL ARI was proposed as an expansion of support for Plan Colombia, under the Clinton Administration, with more funding for social and economic development programs for Colombia and its neighbors, who are affected by Colombia's struggle against guerrillas and drug traffickers. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.

April 23, — July 22, RL In and continuing into , Congress considered President Bush's requests for FY supplemental and FY assistance for Colombia and six regional neighbors in a continuation of the Andean Regional Initiative launched in The th Congress will be faced early on with a number of pressing foreign affairs, defense, and trade issues. This report provides background information on the issues most likely to be taken up in the first session, analyzes the congressional role in shaping U.

Of particular concern to September 20, — November 8, RL While Congress intended the legislation would serve as authorization for both FY and FY, the delay in getting it through Congress led to a waiver of the authorization Mexican Drug Certification Issues: U. Congressional Action, April 9, — October 22, F. Drug Certification Requirements and Congressional Modifications in November 6, — October 22, RL This report provides a brief summary of the existing drug certification requirements for drug producing and drug-transit countries, background on the experience, criticisms, and reform efforts under these provisions; a summary of early congressional options and proposals advanced in , with possible advantages and disadvantages; a summary of later initiatives with legislative activity; and 5 a tracking of legislative action on the major initiatives.

December 26, — February 4, RL The annual Foreign Operations appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U. It contains the largest share -- over two-thirds -- of total U. By comparison, foreign policy resources proposed for State Department, U. Once plagued by dictatorial rule, civil war, and economic chaos, since Nicaragua has developed democratic institutions and a framework for economic development.

Progress has been made in social and economic reforms. Nonetheless, significant challenges remain: Nicaragua is still very poor, and its institutions are weak. Elections for the presidency and National Assembly will be held on November 4, It was President Bush's first international summit, and his first major opportunity to reemphasize the priority his administration places on the Western Hemisphere, given that he visited Mexico in mid-February, spoke at the Organization of American States OAS in mid-April, and met with seven hemispheric leaders before he attended the Summit in Canada.

The Quebec December 19, — February 27, RL Among the th Congress' first orders of business will be dealing with the initiatives--both domestic and foreign policy--proposed by President Bush throughout his presidential campaign. The congressional campaigns suggested that the agenda of the th Congress will be largely domestic: Social Security, health care, education, taxes, and military pay were prominent in campaigns across America and on post-election news programs.

Indeed, many issues discussed in this report will be affected by the resolution of a contentious battle for the presidency. In the Congress, the In a vote that observers said did not meet minimum conditions for a free and fair election, President Alberto Fujimori of Peru won a third term on May The United States urged sanctions, but the OAS sent a high-level mission to press Peru for democratic reforms instead.

Corruption scandals and lessened support led Fujimori to agree to new elections in April and then, on November 20, to resign. The th Congress called for the review and modification of U. Mexico held historic elections on July 2, , that demonstrated Mexico's evolution toward fully democratic government since an opposition president was elected for the first time in 71 years. Coming after a series of electoral reforms in the s, the elections were supervised by independent and widely respected Mexican electoral authorities, and were closely watched by party poll watchers, and domestic and international observers.

In the second session of the th Congress, policymakers are facing an assortment of issues in U. In the trade arena, Congress has completed action on an initiative begun last year to provide preferential tariff treatment for countries of the Caribbean and Central America because of concerns that these countries are losing U.

With regard to anti-drug policy, This report provides information on Mexico's counter-narcotics efforts under President Ernesto Zedillo, with emphasis on the last year, as the Congress is considering President Clinton's decision, on March 1, , to certify that Mexico was fully cooperative in drug control efforts. The report focuses on 1 Mexico's share of illicit drug traffic to the United States, 2 Mexico's efforts to control drug trafficking seizures, arrests, eradication , and 3 Mexico's cooperation with the United States in counter-narcotics efforts.

Share of Traffic. Mexico continued to be the transit Relations: Chronology of Key Events This chronology outlines major events in U. The chronology provides more detailed information on events since , including U. In the s, U. After Cuba began expropriating U.

In , diplomatic relations The supplemental did not include any of the trade expansion provisions which the Administration has proposed previously, and which the Central American countries include as their highest priority. The Senate supplemental appropriations bill S. The final legislation, P. L , This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions to disapprove President Clinton's February 26, certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics. While the drug certification legislation requires that Congress act within 30 calendar days after Mexico and Drug Certification in Consequences of Decertification.

President Clinton certified, on February 26, , that Mexico was fully cooperative in counter- narcotics efforts with the United States, setting in motion a calendar-day period in which the Congress may review the President's decision. In recent years, congressional resolutions were advanced but not enacted to disapprove the President's certifications after President Clinton certified Mexico as a fully cooperative country.

This report summarizes the drug certification procedures and indicates the types of U. When the th Congress comes to work in January, its first order of business will be to deal with the impeachment of the President of the United States. The congressional campaigns and elections suggested that the agenda of the th Congress also will be largely domestic in its focus: Social Security, health care, and education were the order of the day in campaigns across America and on post-election news programs.

1. Brazil's Bolsonaro shakes things up

Indeed, of the issues discussed in this report, only increased defense spending to address military readiness and retention of trained military personnel has been The Miami Summit created a Plan of Action with 23 initiatives in four major areas. Under the leadership of various countries and organizations, these initiatives have been advanced, and major agreements have been concluded and are in the process of being implemented This report presents arguments for and against congressional resolutions which have been introduced to disapprove President Clinton's February 26, certification of Mexico as a fully cooperative country in efforts to control illicit narcotics.

National reconciliation was the primary goal of President Violeta Barrios de Chamorro's administration from Yet many critics, both in Nicaragua and in the U. Congress, saw her commitment to keeping the peace within the Nicaraguan national family as slowing the pace of political, institutional, and economic reform in the early years of her seven-year term. During the last two years, however, Nicaragua began to develop the institutions that contribute to a pluralist system.

Primary U. The acrimony surrounding Nicaragua's recent elections has raised new concerns for political conciliation and stability there. Nicaraguans voted for president, the legislature, and other offices on Sunday, October 20, It was more than a month later, however, before rightist Arnoldo Aleman was officially declared the winner of the presidential race. After a highly polarized race, Economic Sanctions Through This report first provides an overview of U. It then examines the history and legislative and executive authorities of the various components of U. Since then, U.

The often August 5, — August 30, Almost since the beginning, U. Supporters say a source of news independent of the Cuban government is important, especially in the post-Cold War climate. They say there is less print and broadcast media available now to Cubans than ever before. Critics of U. Topic Areas About Donate. Honduras: Background and U. The Opioid Epidemic: Supply Control and Criminal Justice Policy—Frequently Asked Questions June 28, R Over the last several years, lawmakers in the United States have responded to rising drug overdose deaths, which increased four-fold from to , with a variety of legislation, hearings, and oversight activities.

Venezuela: Background and U. Mexico: Background and U. Relations January 16, — May 2, R Congress has maintained significant interest in Mexico, an ally and top trade partner. Policy in the th Congress March 29, R Political and economic developments in Cuba, a one-party authoritarian state with a poor human rights record, frequently have been the subject of intense congressional concern since the Cuban revolution in Relations June 26, — March 20, R Guatemala, the most populous Central American country, with a population of Colombia: Background and U.

Many factors, both in their countries of Policy in the th Congress April 21, — January 15, R Cuba remains a one-party authoritarian state with a poor human rights record. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances October 29, — November 16, RL Restrictions on travel and remittances to Cuba have constituted a key and often contentious component in U.

Violence Against Journalists in Mexico: In Brief May 17, R Over the past decade, at least 74 journalists have been killed in Mexico and many more have been threatened or attacked. Ecuador: In Brief November 30, — February 13, R Ecuador is a small, oil-producing country of 16 million inhabitants located on the west coast of South America between Colombia and Peru. Former President Rafael Correa Argentina: Background and U. Relations December 9, — June 16, R Argentina, a South American country with a population of almost 44 million, has had a vibrant democratic tradition since its military relinquished power in Cuba: Issues and Actions in the th Congress February 27, — January 18, R Cuba remains a one-party communist state with a poor record on human rights.

Interests and Policy Geographic proximity has ensured strong linkages between the United States and the Latin American and Caribbean region, based on diverse U. Latin America: Terrorism Issues October 13, — December 15, RS Compared to other parts of the world, the potential threat emanating from terrorism is low in most countries in Latin America. Host countries and cities often have to Policy Considerations June 29, — June 30, R Congress is debating how to respond to an ongoing outbreak of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne illness that has no treatment or vaccine and can cause microcephaly—a severe birth defect—and other neurological complications.

For months, Fujimori had maintained a Brazil: Background and U. Relations June 12, — February 11, RL The United States traditionally has enjoyed robust economic and political relations with Brazil, which is the fifth most populous country and ninth-largest economy in the world. Guatemala: One President Resigns; Another Elected, to Be Inaugurated January 14 September 17, — January 11, IN This report discusses the transfer of power to the newly-elected president of Guatemala and its context, following the resignation of the former president and vice-president, their arrest for government corruption, and the succeeding interim government.

  • The Little Dark People (One World Tongue Book 3).
  • Boolean functions. Theory, algorithms, and applications!
  • Principles of E-Learning Systems Engineering?
  • Connect with Latin American Program.

Chile: Background and U. Relations January 12, — November 19, R Chile, located along the Pacific coast of South America, is a politically stable, upper-middle-income nation of 18 million people. Elections in Haiti October 20, IN This report briefly discusses various issues regarding the election process in Haiti. October 13, IN This report briefly discusses the recent breakthrough reached in talks between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia FARC just a day after Pope Francis left Cuba, following more than 40 rounds of discussions held in Havana since November Canada's October Elections September 22, IN This report discusses the political climate in Canada, leading up to Canada's next election, scheduled for October 19, The Dominican Republic: Tensions with Haiti over Citizenship and Migration Issues July 15, IN This report discusses the dispute between the Dominican Republic and Haiti regarding the citizenship status of some , Dominicans of Haitian descent, as well as undocumented migrants in the Dominican Republic, which threatens to exacerbate tensions between the two neighbors.

Reestablishment of Diplomatic Relations with Cuba July 10, IN This report discusses the decision to reestablish diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and to reopen embassies in their respective capitals announced July 1, Brazil's October Presidential Election September 30, — October 22, IN This report briefly discusses the results of Brazil's recent elections and potential policy shifts.

Contemporary U.S.-Latin American Relations

Policy and Issues for Congress January 10, — May 1, RL Trafficking in persons TIP for the purposes of exploitation is believed to be one of the most prolific areas of contemporary international criminal activity and is of significant interest to the United States and the international community as a serious human rights concern. First sponsored in the late s by Cuba: Issues for the th Congress January 28, — January 15, R Cuba remains a one-party communist state with a poor record on human rights.

Counterdrug Programs April 30, — March 19, R Drug trafficking is viewed as a primary threat to citizen security and U. Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and Response January 15, — May 6, R The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti devastated parts of the country, including the capital, on January 12, Relations February 1, R Paraguay, a landlocked nation in the center of South America, has friendly relations with the United States and has been a traditional ally.

Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues for the th Congress January 23, — January 26, RL Over the past two decades, the Latin America and Caribbean region has made enormous strides in terms of political and economic development, with regular free and fair elections the norm in most countries. Paraguay: Background and U. Although the First World War represented the crisis of European civilization, it was unarguably felt around the world.

It not only intensely affected the way Latin America perceived the old continent, but also influenced the way the subcontinent viewed and represented itself. The war provoked strong divisions in public opinion in Latin America, creating a rift between the belligerent sides; it also reactivated the national question, contributed to new reflections on national identity, and stimulated a firm and growing anti- imperialism. This article will examine the impact that World War I had on these trends in Latin American society and how Latin Americans responded to the new world order that the war brought with it.

Although Latin America remained neutral during most of the First World War, the conflict had disruptive and divisive effects on Latin American culture and politics. Public opinion polarized, split between two opposed sectors with conflicting identities.

U.S.-Latin America Relations

In the first phase, the division involved the cultural models represented by the belligerent sides, fluctuating between France and Germany. In the second phase, when the conflict touched the subcontinent more closely, the polarization took on a political dimension; primarily issues of nationalism or, in some cases, political infighting arose.

In spite of the neutrality that Latin American states adopted at the beginning of the First World War, civil society chose sides early on in the conflict. In the first months of the war, Latin American public opinion was split between the belligerent sides, with a clear majority in favor of the Triple Entente. This distribution of support was influenced by deeply rooted cultural affinities.

Since independence, the Latin American nations tended to seek political and cultural models that were alternative to their former colonizers, Spain and Portugal. As a result, they mainly leant towards France, perceived as the cradle of liberty and democracy and as a mother of arts. The imbalance between the opposing groups of public opinion accentuated throughout the war. The invasion and occupation of Belgium and Luxembourg were considered a virtual threat to the sovereignty of neutral nations, like the Latin American ones.

Additionally, in Brazil, which had a considerable German community in the south of its territory, these factors and Pan-Germanic propaganda awakened suspicions of secessionism and generated a deep cultural breach. In most cases, they declared war against the German Empire; only a few confined themselves to severing diplomatic relationships with it. A mere six countries remained neutral until the very end of the conflict: Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay and Venezuela.

Foreign policy became a central topic of public debate and contributed to reconfigure social polarizations. These new combinations fostered a nationalist mobilization. Defending national honor became an important issue in public controversies. In Argentina, the sinking of three vessels by German U-boats and the scandal around the Luxburg Affair called into question the continuity of the official diplomatic course.

Public opinion split between the rupturistas and neutralistas , with both sectors claiming to represent national interests exclusively. Both operated at the national level and organized mass public demonstrations in defense of their respective cause. In some cases, the polarization caused by the war also nurtured domestic political struggles. In Argentina, the opposition controlled parliament, which declared itself in favor of severing diplomatic relationships with Germany.

Latin America has not normally stood at the forefront of scholarly interest when historians have debated the effects of the First World War on the political culture of non-European societies.

Challenges for Latin America in the 21st Century - OpenMind

With regard to Asian and African countries, many of which took part in the war by default as European colonies, it has been argued that the war constituted a historical turning point. It is true, however, that the first decades of the 20 th century witnessed significant ideological shifts in Latin America, which ran parallel to comparable developments in other world regions.

Latin American authenticity in contradistinction to Europe — encapsulated in typical food, music, clothes, languages and ethnic customs — was celebrated, where until recently racial pessimists had seen them as obstacles to a European-inspired modernity and progress. A growing chorus of Latin American intellectuals and politicians demanded greater economic self-sufficiency and, most notably of all changes, bemoaned U.

In short, anti-imperialism and cultural nationalism were visibly on the rise in Latin America — especially in the Spanish-speaking countries — between and , just as they were in parts of Asia and Africa. It is less clear, however, to what extent the First World War was a driving force behind these changes. Intellectual historians of Latin America typically feel more comfortable with more arbitrary starting dates, such as , to chart the rise of anti-imperialism and cultural nationalism in Spanish America than with the specific ones of or While ever more wary of U.

More forcefully, racial mixing mestizaje shed the negative connotations it had held in the late 19 th century and instead evolved into a celebrated identity marker of many Latin American countries, most notably in revolutionary Mexico. Many of these reorientations coincided with the First World War and in one way or another used it as a rhetorical foil.

But if a war had to be identified that stimulated these changes in Latin American understandings of national identity, most historians would probably opt for the Spanish-American War of instead of the First World War. Even so, the First World War did accelerate and reinforce developments towards anti-imperialism and cultural nationalism in Latin America that had begun during the two preceding decades.

One mechanism through which this happened was the economy. Due to the interruption of trade relations with Europe, domestic markets in Latin America needed to be strengthened, which brought about a degree of industrialization in some countries. Arguably, this inward-orientation was not as profound as it could have been. Dependency theorists later saw the First World War as a lost opportunity for a greater degree of economic independence in Latin America. Nascent middle classes gained political weight in countries such as Argentina and Chile, while the rise of working-class movements fed into the foundation of communist parties in the larger countries in the years after the war Mexico and Argentina in , Brazil and Chile in , Cuba in These parties bred some anti-imperialist intellectuals, even though they rarely acquired serious electoral weight and in some countries, notably Argentina, were increasingly chided for being not sufficiently popular and nationalist.

Geopolitical analysis 2017: South America

Extended stays in European capitals — again, preferably Paris — were perceived as entry tickets into successful careers back home as writers or artists. The war temporarily closed these avenues of exchange, encouraging a greater extent of cultural transfers and circulation of ideas and people within Latin America — again particularly among the Spanish-speaking countries. Latin American intellectuals had a vivid interest in the Mexican Revolution , which found some detractors but ultimately more admirers, who saw it as a model for eradicating social injustices, ending the mimicry of overseas high culture and standing up to the powerful U.

Though not directly linked to the war, it was clearly nurtured by the global political ferment that the war had fostered. After the war, even as Latin Americans began to assert their cultural particularities more strongly than before, the flow of ideas and people between Latin America and Europe resumed, and arguably intensified.