Manual An Ethics of Interrogation

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Helen Frowe. Enforcing Order. Didier Fassin. A Field Guide for Female Interrogators. Coco Fusco. Jerome H. The Faces of Terrorism. Neil J. Torture, Terror, and Trade-Offs. Jeremy Waldron. Lisa Hajjar. Anthropologists in Arms. George R. Lucas Jr. Charles Fried. Ethics and War. Steven P.

Project MUSE - The Ethics of Interrogation

The Counterrevolution. Bernard E. Mainstreaming Torture. Rebecca Gordon. Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture. Fritz Allhoff. David Correia. Bradley Jay Strawser. Time in the Shadows. Laleh Khalili. Criminal Justice Ethics. Cyndi L. Terrorism, Security and Nationality. Paul Gilbert. Ethics and the Future of Spying.

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An Ethics of Interrogation

Targeted Killings. Claire Finkelstein. Ethics of Spying. Jan Goldman. War after September Verna V. Tortured reality.

Laura M. War and Moral Dissonance. Peter A. Confronting Evils. Claudia Card. Partly Cloudy. David L. Progressive Management. The Phenomenon of Torture. William F. Homeland Security, its Law and its State. Christos Boukalas. The Innocent Man. John Grisham. What's Wrong With Terrorism? Robert E. Killing Pablo. Mark Bowden. Laws, Outlaws, and Terrorists. Gabriella Blum. Conrad Powell. The Death of Common Sense.

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Philip K. Terrorism Unjustified. Vicente Medina. Should Trees Have Standing? Christopher D. Military Ethics and Peace Psychology. Jean Maria Arrigo. The Law of Superheroes. James Daily. Confronting Torture. Scott A. Reversal of Fortune. Alan Dershowitz. International Law, New Diplomacy and Counterterrorism.

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Such a plan should be given up to a year to complete although the actual time may be considerably shorter depending on how events unfold. This should be his only contact with other people, and we believe he will anxiously look forward to these meetings. It was recommended that al-Qahtani be periodically subjected to additional stresses so that his interrogator could become his savior:. These and other stressors will be carefully and subtly introduced not by the interrogator, but by guards. We believe that 63 will likely look to his only human contact, his interviewer, in an attempt to gain help.

The interviewer status as a caregiver and problem-solver will thus be increased…. Two major problems I have with this is first, solitary is a punishment reserved for the worst kind of behavior by inmates in a prison, not for refusing to answer questions. Second, it is the worst possible way to interrogate anyone and will almost always produce negative results. At a minimum, there is no question that the participation of psychologists and psychiatrists in the development of this interrogation plan led to the recommendation of strategies that would be likely to cause severe psychological distress and clearly violated psychological and psychiatric ethics.

Prolonged isolation frequently causes severe emotional distress, including psychotic symptoms identical to those appearing in al-Qahtani, such as hearing non-existent voices and talking to non-existent people. Stuart Grassian and Dr. Craig Haney, highlight the destructive impact of solitary confinement. Effects include depression, anxiety, difficulties with concentration and memory, hypersensitivity to external stimuli, hallucinations and perceptual distortions, paranoia, suicidal thoughts and behavior, and problems with impulse control.

The American Psychiatric Association, concerned about the conflicts inherent in such interrogation assistance, in explicitly condemned any direct involvement of their members in interrogations of specific detainees or prisoners, in domestic or national security settings.

The Association stated in May Direct participation includes being present in the interrogation room, asking or suggesting questions, or advising authorities on the use of specific techniques of interrogation with particular detainees. In addition, the military requires psychologists consulting to interrogations to be licensed by a state as health providers and most states require adherence to the APA ethics code as a requirement of licensure.

After this resolution was passed, it came under withering criticism from dissident psychologists and the press. In February , in response to criticism, the APA amended its Resolution to unambiguously condemn psychologist involvement in the use of isolation. The revised resolution proclaimed :.

In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons…. As expressed by DeBatto:. He has already endured months of stressors. Gelles now joins the ranks of other APA psychologists, including Morgan Banks , Larry James , and Bryce Lefever , whom the organization upheld as models for ethical military interrogation processes, but whom subsequently appeared sympathetic to or may have aided abusive practices.

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As described by Turley in testimony before the Senate Intelligence Committee , King requested a mental health consultation because he felt he was losing his grip on reality. Turley, who represented King, reports that the APA did not respond to his ethics complaint against Gelles. In any case, it turns out that Gelles was well aware of the potential ethical conflicts involved in his work with the CITF. In a paper in the Journal of Threat Assessment, apparently written at about the same time, Gelles and colleague Patrick Ewing argued that psychiatrists and psychologists involved in national security work should not be subject to professional ethics codes:.

An Ethics of Interrogation

Such input has been and will continue to be vital to protecting the lives of many Americans, civilian and military, at home and abroad. This military- and intelligence-dominated group gave the ethical go-ahead for psychologists to aid detainee interrogations at Guantanamo and elsewhere. In an open letter in , psychologist Uwe Jacobs posed a series of questions to Dr. Gelles including:. To cite a few examples, did you believe it was ethical to transport prisoners to Guantanamo under conditions of sensory deprivation, i.

Did you believe it was ethical to keep prisoners in solitary confinement for very long periods of time? Is it ethical to deprive prisoners of sleep? Is it ethical to subject them to severe heat and cold, constant noises or lights, stress positions, short shackling, screaming abuse etc.? You know the list I am referring to. Do you agree that these techniques have long been proven to produce severe nervous system dysregulation and often lasting psychological damage?